Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison speaks to the media during a press conference at Parliament House in Canberra, Wednesday, March 18, 2020. (AAP Image/Lukas Coch)
Schools will stay open but non-essential indoor gatherings of more than 100 people are now banned as the government rolls out further restrictions to stem the spread of the coronavirus.
Australians are also being told not to travel overseas, and strict restrictions will be placed on visitors to aged care homes.
The prime minister also bluntly told Australians to stop hoarding groceries and other supplies.
National coronavirus cases are approaching 460 and five people have died. Some 81,000 people have been tested, 99.5 per cent of whom returned a negative test.
Scott Morrison cautioned the changes to daily life will be a long-haul measure, with the government expecting the virus crisis will roll on for at least six months.
"What we are doing, you have to be able to keep doing that and sustain that," he told reporters in Canberra on Wednesday.
"There is no two-week answer to what we're confronting ...The idea that you can just turn everything off for two weeks and then turn it all back on again and it all goes away, that is not the evidence."
The medical assessment is that schools should stay open, and Mr Morrison and chief medical officer Brendan Murphy warned the consequences of closing schools would be severe.
That could include tens of thousands of jobs lost, Mr Morrison said.
But Professor Murphy said school life would also have to change, with no assemblies, regular hand washing, and strict bans on sick students and teachers.
"It will be hard for schools, but it would be much, much, much harder for society if the schools were closed," he said.
A ban on non-essential indoor gatherings of more than 100 people is effective immediately.
It does not affect public transport, airports, medical facilities, supermarkets and shopping centres, parliaments, courts or jails.
Office buildings, factories, construction or mining sites, schools, universities, child care facilities and hotels are also exempt.
But people should practice social distancing in all these areas, keeping a space of 1.5 metres between themselves and others.
"Every citizen now has to think about every interaction they have with another person during the day," Professor Murphy said.
"No more hand-shaking. No more hugging except in your family ... No more scant attention to hand hygiene."
Strict rules around visitors at aged care facilities are also now in place, barring anyone who has recently travelled, sick people, children except in exceptional circumstances, and from May 1 anyone who hasn't had a flu vaccination.
Only one daily visit of at most two people per resident is allowed.
But Mr Morrison said the new restrictions did not mean Australians should be panicking and certainly not stripping supermarket shelves bare.
"Stop hoarding," he said.
"It is not sensible, it is not helpful and it has been one of the most disappointing things I have seen in Australian behaviour in response to this crisis."
The Department of Foreign Affairs has updated its travel advice for the second time in 24 hours, now telling all Australians not to travel overseas.
Anyone already overseas is being urged to return home as soon as possible.
The majority of new coronavirus cases in Australia are still among people who have brought it back from overseas or people in close contact with travellers.
All people arriving from overseas must self-quarantine for 14 days and cruise ships are barred from Australian ports for at least 30 days.
The federal government has flagged another round of economic stimulus measures on top of a $17.6 billion package announced last week.
This includes a $715 million assistance package for airlines like Qantas and Virgin Australia that will give the carriers relief from airport fees and other aviation industry charges.
The states and territories have developed their own economic packages to lessen the economic blow from the spread of COVID-19, which is set to crush major industries and hurt workers.
© AAP 2020